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This Seccii Disk is used to measure the visibility in water. The disk is lower over the side of the ship until it completely disappears. Then the length of the rope is measured and that determines the visibility of the water.
Nansen water bottles sample the water at various depths. The bottle is lowered over the side of the ship until the desired depth is reached. Then the bottle capture device closes the ends to the water bottle sample trapping the water.
A plankton net is a fine meshed net which allows water to filter through but not plankton and other small creatures. The net is dragged at behind the ship at various depths. The creatures are the forced into a tube at the end of the net from water pressure and the sample is obtained there.
Dredge Bottom Sampler, samples the sediment from the bottom of a body of water. The sampler is tossed over board or from the shore and sinks to the bottom. When the cord is pulled to reel it back in, the sampler jaws close and trapped sediment which is brought to the surface.